Section No. 1--General Rules (Rev.-9-1984)
Binders must be compatible with the size of chain with which they are to be used.
Binders must be equipped with two grabhooks except when chain assemblies contain grabhooks intended
to shorten chains.
The welding of binders to chain is prohibited except in the manufacturing process. Binders may be
attached to chain using a repair type connecting link of the type in Fig. 1 of this rule, which has equivalent strength of
Binders of a style which could open during transit must have the operating handle wired or otherwise
secured to prevent undesired opening.
Welding of chains directly to the car is prohibited.
Permanent attachment of chains to car stake pockets is not encouraged. Stake pockets purpose is
defeated when chains are permanently attached therein.
Attachment of chain to welded anchors is permitted provided attachment has sufficient lineal inches of
weld to provide a rated strength equal to 125% of the ultimate failure-rating for the chain.
Use of U-bolt cable clamps as a means of securing chains to car which meet ASTM specifications is
permissible. For 3/8 inch highest and alloy chain use 1/2 Inch U-bolt cable clamp having 32,500 lb. minimum breaking
strength. For 1/2 inch high test and alloy chain use 8 inch U-bolt cable clamp having 50,000 lb. minimum breaking
Whenever possible, chains should pass around or through stake pockets with the grabhooks engaging the
chain. (See Fig. 4)
Repairs to chains must be made using a repair device of the illustrated type (See Fig. 1) which is rated by
the manufacturer to equal the type of chain in which it is used. Repair links made by the following manufacturers are
acceptable; Crosby Company (LOK A LOY), Campbell Chain Company (QUICK A LOY), Dominion Chain Company, Ltd.
(KUPLEX CHAIN JOINER), Columbus McKinnon (HAMMERLOCK), Dominion Chain Company (ACCOLOY), Acco
Industries, Inc. (Kuplok Mechanical Coupling Link). Locate repair links where they will not impair the use of comer
protectors, tensioning devices, locking devices or other features of the chain assemblies.
Repairing of chains by welding is prohibited.
Use of missing link type connecting links (See Fig. 2), lap links, and cold shuts is prohibited.
The tying of chains for any purpose is prohibited.
The use of bolts to repair broken chains or to secure ends of chains when hooks are missing is prohibited.
Application of Chains
A sufficient number of chains will be used to safely restrain the lading. The chain's rated working load limit
will be the restraining capacity used In determining the number of chains required.
Except as specifically provided in figures, the number of chains required will be determined using the
following basic formula:
Chains Required = Weight of Lading
Working Load Limit
with a minimum of three chains used.
This formula is applicable to fiat loaded commodities not subject to rolling. When the commodity is subject to
rolling, the following general formula applies:
Chains Required = Weight of Lading
Working Load Limit x 2
with a minimum of four chains used, two in each direction.
Chains used in the securement of flat loaded commodities will be applied over the top of the load, and will
be at an approximate right angle 190°) angle to the side of the car whenever possible, except when method of chain
application is prescribed in a specific figure.
Chains used for the securement of commodities subject to rolling should be applied in such a manner as to
provide the greatest restraint against longitudinal movement.