Section 1-General Rules (Rev.-9-1983)
Rule 14. Nails, Staples and Lag Screws.
Where nails are designated by penny-weight, for example "40-D", in the rules and detailed figures, they may be either
common or cement-coated, unless otherwise specified.
Size of Common Nails
Size of Cement-Coated Nails
2 1/2 Inch
2 3/8 Inch
3 3/4 Inch
2 3/4 Inch
4 1/2 Inch
2 7/8 Inch
4 1/4 Inch
3 1/8 Inch
4 3/4 Inch
3 1/4 Inch
5 1/2 Inch
3 1/4 Inch
5 3/4 Inch
3 1/2 Inch
Power driven nails and/or staples may be used but the number specified in the applicable figure must be increased by
one-third. The approved size substitution is as follows:
Power Driven Staple
Power Driven Nail
8-D or 10-D
2 1/2 in. or 2 3/4 in.
8-D or 10-D
3 in. or 31/4 in.
16-D or 20-D
3 1/2. in.
Manufacturers who have had their power-driven nails and power-driven staples tested by the AAR are listed be- low with
approved nail and or staple sizes shown.
Power Driven Cement
Coated Nail Sizes
8-D, 16-D, 20-D, 30-D & 40-D
.080 x 2 1/2, 2 3/4
8-D, 10-D and 16-D
3, 3 1/4 & 3 1/2
8-D and 10-D
16-D, 20-D. 30-D
Acme Steel, Canada, Ltd.
16-D, 20-D and 40-D
Lag screws may be used where nails are specified. When used, they must be properly applied by pre-drilling and
torquing by mechanical means. Lag screws must not be driven by hammering.
Lag screws 3/8 in. diameter may be used in place of common nails as follows:
Same number as specified for nails 20-D and greater.
One-half the number specified for nails less than 20-D.
The length of the lag screw must be at least 2 in. longer than blocking being secured.
Greater diameter lag screws may be used but using the same number as permitted above.
Rule 15. Bolts, Nuts, Rods, Bands, Wires, Wire Rope, Cable, Chains, Non-Metallic Strapping, Band or Wire
Protectors, Points of Attachment, Substitutions Permissible, Turnbuckles and Constant Tensioning Devices.
Bolts, Nuts, Rods and Washers.
Rods or bolts, having rolled threads of the same diameter as that of U.S. Standard cut threads, may be used.
Bending of threaded portion of rods or bolts is prohibited.
When rods are used for tiedowns passing through large diameter holes in the lading, a plate or plates of sufficient
strength to prevent bending, must be placed between the lading and the nut of the rod.
When rods, etc., used to secure loads not covered in detailed figures are passed through car floor, a 4 in. x 4 in. x
18 in. hardwood cleat or 1/2 in. x 4 in. x 18 in. steel plate must be placed lengthwise of car under door on wood, nailable steel
floor and composite wood and steel flooring. Length of steel plate may be reduced to 1/2 in. x 4 In. x 6 in. on cars with floors
constructed of steel plate. When rods, etc., pass through stake pocket, a 1/2 in. x 4 in. x 10 in. steel plate must be placed
lengthwise of car under stake pocket.
The use of rods with open hook ends on load or car is prohibited.
Where bolts, with washers to prevent splitting, are specified for clamping pieces, they may be substituted with 1
1/4 inch high tension bands, sealed in conformance with "Minimum Joint Strength-Pounds" shown in table of High Tension Bands
under Paragraph (J) of this rule.
To retain nuts In original position, three or more threads on rods or bolts must be nicked, chisel hacked, flattened
or otherwise distorted immediately behind single or double nuts or nuts tack welded to rods to insure that nuts will not back off.
When less than three threads extend beyond nuts, there must be sufficient length for rods or bolts to be riveted over to prevent
nuts front backing off. Not required when nut locks or lock nuts are used. Lock washers are not acceptable substitutes.
The bending of rods around stake pockets and then welding the overlapping portion to the main rod is prohibited.
Rods should be located so that they are not in contact with each other. When rods do contact each other suitable
means to prevent chafing or wear must be provided.
One splice is permitted for securement items 18 ft. or less in length, made from bars and/or rods. When
necessary to increase length, one splice may be added for each additional 18 ft. or less in length.
When necessary to weld threaded rod to flat bar or rods for the purpose of securement or when necessary to
splice the tie-down item to increase length, there must be sufficient overlap with continuous weld on both sides to equal the
strength of the original securement item. The strength of the weld is to be based on a value of 600 lbs. per 1/2 inch fillet 1 inch
long. All welding must be done by a qualified welder.
High Tension Steel Bands.
Shipper should be in position to show that a banding or wire product used for securement of open top loads meets